However, many academic institutions and disciplines prefer a specific style of referencing or have even developed their own unique format so be sure to check which style you should be using with your professor.
Each line of dialog should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. Comments The series information is considered under the optional element Other Facts about the Source. Accessed 29 Sep. Editors Austen, Jane, Juvenilia. Chaos: Making a New Science. Below are some examples for formatting the Works Cited page. Instead of
Where examples are not covered in the official handbook, this is clearly indicated. The MLA format is generally simpler than other referencing styles as it was developed to emphasize brevity and clarity. The style uses a straightforward two-part documentation system for citing sources: parenthetical citations in the author-page format that are keyed to an alphabetically ordered works cited page.
Keep your MLA in-text citations brief, clear and accurate by only including the information needed to identify the sources. Furthermore, each parenthetical citation should be placed close to the idea or quote being cited, where a natural pause occurs — which is usually at the end of the sentence. Essentially you should be aiming to position your parenthetical citations where they minimize interruption to the reading flow, which is particularly important in an extensive piece of written work.
Note on Cross-referencing Several Items from One Anthology: If you cite more than one essay from the same edited collection, MLA indicates you may. MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. or an essay in a collection), cite the author of the internal source (i.e., the article or essay).
Check out the examples below…. When the author is referred to more than once in the same paragraph, you may use a single MLA in-text citation at the end of the paragraph as long as the work cannot be confused with others cited.
If there are two authors with the same surname, be sure to include their first initial in your citation to avoid confusion. Unlike an MLA in-text citation, you must include all of the publication information in your works cited entries. Luckily for you, we know where the commas go, and our citation maker will put them there for you. A works cited page is a comprehensive list of all the sources that directly contributed to your work — each entry links to the brief parenthetical citations in the main body of your work.
Your works cited page should appear at the end of the main body of text on a separate page. The title of the page should be neither italicized nor bold — it is simply center-aligned. Like the rest of your paper the list should be double-spaced, both between and within entries. As long as you clearly indicate all of your sources via both parenthetical citations and a works cited list, it is very unlikely that you will lose points for citing incorrectly. Works cited examples: Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. Verso, Fox, Claire F.
University of Minnesota Press, Sontag, Susan. On Photography. Penguin, Racing against the clock? Accurately and easily cite any type of source in a heartbeat; whether it be a musical score, a work of art, or even a comic strip. To format your research paper according to the guidelines: Set the margins to 1 inch or 2.
Below is a list outlining the key ways in which the style has developed since previous editions. Titles of independent works such as books and periodicals are now italicized rather than underlined. Listing URLs for web citations is now always encouraged. Cite the book as you normally would, but add the editor after the title with the label "edited by. Bronte, Charlotte. To cite the entire anthology or collection, list by editor s followed by a comma and "editor" or, for multiple editors, "editors.
If you are citing a particular piece within an anthology or collection more common , see A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection below. Hill, Charles A. Defining Visual Rhetorics. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Peterson, Nancy J. Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches. Johns Hopkins UP, Works may include an essay in an edited collection or anthology, or a chapter of a book.
The basic form is for this sort of citation is as follows:. Last name, First name. Harris, Muriel. Swanson, Gunnar.
Note on Cross-referencing Several Items from One Anthology: If you cite more than one essay from the same edited collection, MLA indicates you may cross-reference within your works cited list in order to avoid writing out the publishing information for each separate essay. You should consider this option if you have several references from a single text. To do so, include a separate entry for the entire collection listed by the editor's name as below:. Rose, Shirley K. The Writing Program Administrator as Researcher.
Heinemann, Then, for each individual essay from the collection, list the author's name in last name, first name format, the title of the essay, the editor's last name, and the page range:. L'Eplattenier, Barbara. Peeples, Tim.
Please note: When cross-referencing items in the works cited list, alphabetical order should be maintained for the entire list. Burns, Robert. Kincaid, Jamaica. If the specific literary work is part of the author's own collection all of the works have the same author , then there will be no editor to reference:. Whitman, Walt.
Carter, Angela. For entries in encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other reference works, cite the entry name as you would any other work in a collection but do not include the publisher information. Also, if the reference book is organized alphabetically, as most are, do not list the volume or the page number of the article or item. When citing only one volume of a multivolume work, include the volume number after the work's title, or after the work's editor or translator. Institutio Oratoria.
Translated by H. Butler, vol.
When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes in the work. Also, be sure in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number s see "Citing Multivolume Works" on our in-text citations resource.
see Butler, Loeb-Harvard UP, If the volume you are using has its own title, cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication. When citing an introduction, a preface, a foreword, or an afterword, write the name of the author s of the piece you are citing. Finish the citation with the details of publication and page range. Farrell, Thomas B. If the writer of the piece is different from the author of the complete work , then write the full name of the principal work's author after the word "By.
Duncan, Hugh Dalziel. Original copies of books published before are usually defined by their place of publication rather than the publisher.
Unless you are using a newer edition, cite the city of publication where you would normally cite the publisher. Remember that your in-text parenthetical citation should include the name of the specific edition of the Bible, followed by an abbreviation of the book, the chapter and verse s. The Bible. The New Oxford Annotated Version , 3rd ed. Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified. Otherwise, start with the name of the national government, followed by the agency including any subdivisions or agencies that serves as the organizational author.
For congressional documents, be sure to include the number of the Congress and the session when the hearing was held or resolution passed as well as the report number. US government documents are typically published by the Government Printing Office. Hearing on the Geopolitics of Oil. Government Printing Office, United States, Government Accountability Office. Cite the title and publication information for the pamphlet just as you would a book without an author. Pamphlets and promotional materials commonly feature corporate authors commissions, committees, or other groups that does not provide individual group member names.
If the pamphlet you are citing has no author, cite as directed below.