Multiple sclerosis research articles

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Barbellion , nom-de-plume of Bruce Frederick Cummings — , who maintained a detailed log of his diagnosis and struggle.

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There is ongoing research looking for more effective, convenient, and tolerable treatments for relapsing-remitting MS; creation of therapies for the progressive subtypes; neuroprotection strategies; and effective symptomatic treatments. During the s and s, there has been approval of several oral drugs that are expected to gain in popularity and frequency of use.

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Laquinimod was announced in August and is in a third phase III trial after mixed results in the previous ones. Monoclonal antibodies have also raised high levels of interest. As of alemtuzumab , daclizumab , and CD20 monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab , ocrelizumab and ofatumumab had all shown some benefit and were under study as potential treatments, [96] and the FDA approved ocrelizumab for relapsing and primary MS in March Another research strategy is to evaluate the combined effectiveness of two or more drugs.

Research on neuroprotection and regenerative treatments, such as stem cell therapy , while of high importance, are in the early stages. MS is a clinically defined entity with several atypical presentations. Some auto-antibodies have been found in atypical MS cases, giving birth to separate disease families and restricting the previously wider concept of MS. Later, it was found that some cases of MS were presenting anti-MOG autoantibodies , mainly overlapping with the Marburg variant.

At this moment, it is named inconsistently across different authors, but it is normally something similar to anti-MOG demyelinating diseases. Finally, a third kind of auto-antibodies is accepted. They are several anti-neurofascin auto-antibodies which damage the Ranvier nodes of the neurones. These antibodies are more related to the peripheral nervous demyelination, but they were also found in chronic progressive PPMS and combined central and peripheral demyelination CCPD, which is considered another atypical MS presentation. Besides all this autoantibodies found, four different patterns of demyelination have been reported in MS, opening the door to consider MS as an heterogeneous disease.

While diagnostic criteria are not expected to change in the near future, work to develop biomarkers that help with diagnosis and prediction of disease progression is ongoing. At the current time, there are no laboratory investigations that can predict prognosis. Several promising approaches have been proposed including: interleukin-6 , nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase , osteopontin , and fetuin -A. Improvement in neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography PET or magnetic resonance imaging MRI carry a promise for better diagnosis and prognosis predictions, although the effect of such improvements in daily medical practice may take several decades.

In , vascular surgeon Paolo Zamboni suggested that MS involves narrowing of the veins draining the brain, which he referred to as chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency CCSVI. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Multiple sclerosis Other names Disseminated sclerosis, encephalomyelitis disseminata CD68 -stained tissue shows several macrophages in the area of a demyelinated lesion caused by MS.

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Specialty Neurology Symptoms Double vision, blindness in one eye, muscle weakness, trouble with sensation , trouble with coordination [1] Usual onset Age 20—50 [2] Duration Long term [1] Causes Unknown [3] Diagnostic method Based on symptoms and medical tests [4] Treatment Medications, physical therapy [1] Prognosis 5—10 year shorter life expectancy [5] Frequency 2 million [6] Deaths 18, [7] Multiple sclerosis MS is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

Main article: Multiple sclerosis signs and symptoms. Main article: Pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. Main article: Management of multiple sclerosis. Main article: Multiple sclerosis research.

Main article: Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 6 March Autoimmunity Reviews. Australian Family Physician. Bradley's neurology in clinical practice 6th ed. Part I: the role of infection".

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Annals of Neurology. International MS Journal. FEBS Letters. Geneva: World Health Organization. Archived PDF from the original on 4 October Gazette des Hopitaux, Paris. Archives of Neurology. Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 7 October Multiple Sclerosis. Neurological Sciences.

Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Disorders

The Lancet. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. Part II: Noninfectious factors". Journal of the Neurological Sciences. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. Frontiers in Neuroscience. British Journal of Hospital Medicine.

Clinical Microbiology Reviews. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Bibcode : Sci International Review of Neurobiology. The Neurologist. Seminars in Neurology. Journal of Neuroimmunology. Journal of the Belgian Society of Radiology. Archived PDF from the original on 3 August Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on 7 July The clinical neuropsychiatry of multiple sclerosis 2nd ed.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. April The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.


London: Royal College of Physicians. Retrieved 6 February US FDA. Archived from the original on 30 January Retrieved 22 September Biogen Idec. Archived from the original on 12 May Retrieved 4 June Biogen Idec Press Release. Archived from the original on 19 November FDA Press Release. Archived from the original on 3 April Retrieved 22 April Retrieved 11 May Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports. Archived from the original on 1 April March Archived PDF from the original on 1 April Defining these subtypes clinically is not straightforward but the distinction is important therapeutically. Patients with relapsing-SP disease are more likely to have evidence of disease activity on MRI, in the form of focal gadolinium Gd enhancement, and are more likely to respond, albeit it modestly, to immunomodulatory therapies.

The development of neurological impairment and disability has facilitated long-term MS natural history studies. The most popular and most commonly used scale is the expanded disability status scale.

Disseminated Sclerosis

The Multiple Sclerosis page contains articles and information from the New England Journal of Medicine. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory neurological . In another double-blind study, patients with relapsing secondary progressive MS .. or commercial/industrial relationships to disclose in regard to this article.

It needs to be emphasized that MS is an unpredictable disease. Good prognostic signs include, female sex, a younger age of onset, an initial presentation of either optic neuritis or sensory symptoms, full recovery from the first attack, a long period of time between the first and second attacks and a low baseline lesion load on MRI. Firstly, the proportion of people with benign MS, i.

A recent community-based natural history study from Olmsted County in Rochester indicates that on average the course of MS is more benign. Malignant MS is a term that is also frequently used.

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This typically refers to subjects who have frequent disabling attacks with poor recovery and as a result develop a rapidly progressive course, with severe disability or death occurring within a period of less than 2 years. The mechanisms determining these extremes are not defined but may relate to genetic factors; for example apolipoprotein E4 which confers susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease, and is associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes in head trauma and cerebrovascular disease, has also been linked to a poorer clinical outcome in MS.